Practical Implementation of Complementary Access
Complementary Access (CA) may be requested by the IAEA after a State’s Article 2. declaration is reviewed and cross-checked against the Agency’s own verification information, AP declarations filed by collaborating partner States, and open source information.  Most access is to assure the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, and occasional questions are to be expected.  

Case Example: CA in a Research Laboratory

In the particular case of CA in a research laboratory, the IAEA may do the following:

The IAEA will utilize indicators such as open source information, equipment and materials that are present, and other observations during the CA activities to address inconsistencies or check on the absence of undeclared nuclear material or activities.

It should be noted that the Agency may take location-specific environmental samples anywhere in the State, even locations that are not declared.  However, the “reasonable effort” provision (see section 6.2) applies in this case.  For all environmental sampling, the IAEA typically leaves one portion (i.e., “split”) of the sample with the State so they may analyze it if they desire.

Location-specific environmental sampling means the collection of environmental samples (e.g., air, water, vegetation, soil, smears) at, and in the immediate vicinity of, a location specified by the Agency for the purpose of assisting the Agency to draw conclusions about the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities at the specified location.

Administrative procedures as well as self-assessments against those procedures can assist a State with preparing, hosting, and concluding a CA. Administrative considerations that can be addressed in the procedures may include: