Comprehensive Safeguards and the Additional Protocol (AP)

As described above, comprehensive safeguards under a INFCIRC/153-type agreement focuses on activities and facilities using or containing nuclear materials. Any research or construction of facilities not involving nuclear material, such as development of the capability and facilities to fabricate reactor fuel, are not declared to the IAEA and are not inspected under comprehensive safeguards.

The AP involves two important new elements for the IAEA. First, the AP provides additional information in an expanded declaration, and second, the IAEA gains access to locations contained in the declaration to address questions or assure the absence of undeclared nuclear material or activities. Access by the IAEA under the AP is called complementary access (CA). Physical access and maximum effectiveness, for both the State and the IAEA, are inextricably intertwined. The access can be managed in a way that does not intrude unacceptably on facility operations and also protects commercial sensitivities. Such access is sufficient to carry out inspection activities that can contribute to assurance about the absence of undeclared activities.

As such, the AP fills the gaps that comprehensive safeguards could not address. The graphic below shows some areas "surrounding" comprehensive safeguards that are addressed by the AP.

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Some areas of reportable activities addressed by the AP include:

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle-related research and development not involving nuclear material are declared under the AP.
  2. Manufacturing of certain nuclear fuel cycle-related equipment is also declared, as well as imports (upon IAEA request) and exports of nuclear-related equipment.
  3. Inventory, location, and output of uranium mines and uranium and thorium concentration plants are reported under the AP.
  4. The status of nuclear material exempted from safeguards and certain radioactive waste is declared under the AP. Likewise, the status of decommissioned facilities and locations outside facilities (LOFs) can be confirmed under the AP.

These and other reportable activities are further explained in "Declaration Requirements".

Further information on states with Additional Protocols is at: